2014: Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field measurements at the Hylaty station and methodology of signal analysis

Radio Science
Volume 49, Issue 6, pages 361–370, June 2014

DOI 10.1002/2014RS005400

Andrzej Kulak 1,2, Jerzy Kubisz 1, Slawomir Klucjasz 1, Adam Michalec 1, Janusz Mlynarczyk 2,
Zenon Nieckarz 3, Michal Ostrowski 1, and Stanislaw Zieba 1

1) Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
2) Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland
3) Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland


We present the Hylaty geophysical station, a high-sensitivity and low-noise facility for extremely low frequency (ELF, 0.03–300 Hz) electromagnetic field measurements, which enables a variety of geophysical and climatological research related to atmospheric, ionospheric, magnetospheric, and space weather physics. The first systematic observations of ELF electromagnetic fields at the Jagiellonian University were undertaken in 1994. At the beginning the measurements were carried out sporadically, during expeditions to sparsely populated areas of the Bieszczady Mountains in the southeast of Poland. In 2004, an automatic Hylaty ELF station was built there, in a very low electromagnetic noise environment, which enabled continuous recording of the magnetic field components of the ELF electromagnetic field in the frequency range below 60 Hz. In 2013, after 8 years of successful operation, the station was upgraded by extending its frequency range up to 300 Hz. In this paper we show the station’s technical setup, and how it has changed over the years. We discuss the design of ELF equipment, including antennas, receivers, the time control circuit, and power supply, as well as antenna and receiver calibration. We also discuss the methodology we developed for observations of the Schumann resonance and wideband observations of ELF field pulses. We provide examples of various kinds of signals recorded at the station.